Çevre Kirliliği İle İlgili Alınması Gereken Önlemler İngilizce
cevre kirliliginin alinmasi gereken onlemler ile ilgili ingilizce yazi asağıdadır
Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution
In the period of this sub-plan, emphasis will be laid on the particle control in the air pollution control and protection of drinking water sources in water pollution control, thus to realize a fast improvement in the environmental quality. To tackle both symptoms and causes, this process needs not only the traditional end-of-pipe measures, but also the source reduction instruments like promoting cleaner production, developing recycled economy, raising higher standard, refining city plan, adjusting energy structure, improving industrial layout, and introduction of automobiles at higher quality. In this way, the total discharge of pollutants should be reduced significantly, leading environmental pollution control to a new stage.
(1) Prevention and Control of Air Pollution
The air quality improvement of Beijing is a complex challenge that not only involves the urban area, but also relies on the ecological improvement in the whole city and the surrounding areas. While strengthening the initiative to reduce air pollution within the urban area, citywide and regional ecological improvement, agricultural and industrial structure adjustment, and rational utilize of limited water resources are all of critical importance.
Prevention and control of coal-burning pollution: Beijing will greatly increase the use of cleaner energy and reduce coal burning in the urban areas. In 2007, the total coal consumption in the city will be reduced to less than 15 million tons from over 26 million tons in 2001; coal burned in the urban area will be reduced from 16 million tons in 2001 to about 8 million tons with only high quality coal with low sulfur content allowed in the city. At the same time, efforts will be made to popularize the renewable energy, including solar, geothermal and wind energy.
The second natural gas transmission pipeline from the gas field to Beijing will be built to increase natural gas supply capacity to 5 billion cubic meters in 2008.
Planned power transmission and distribution projects will be completed to introduce power from the surrounding area into Beijing. Advanced technology, like heat pump will be applied along with the urban rehabilitation to provide electric heating service for about 20 million square meters’ floor area in 2007.
Natural gas power generation projects in Beijing Third Co-generation Power Plant and Gaojing Power Plant will be accomplished (the coal boiler in Gaojing Power Plant will be closed to reduce coal burning by about 1.5 million tons). New and expansion projects for gas-fired heat and cool co-generation plants will be implemented at Taiyanggong, Caoqiao and other places. In addition, the potential of the existing heating facilities will be tapped. With all these measures; floor area with district heating supply will increase by another 50 million square meters by 2008.
Development of renewable energy is promoted to achieve sustainability. Geothermal resources will be exploited to expend provide heating and cooling service for around 5 million square meters floor area by 2008. Solar energy and bio-mass energy utilization will receive high attention in rural area.
More attention will be paid to energy conservation regarding heat supply system reform and promotion of building energy conservation. Further energy consumption reduction in industries will be realized through restructuring and technological advancement. It is targeted to reduce energy consumption for unit GDP production by 6% annually to make Beijing join those of the leading cities in the country.
By the end of 2005, all coal-burning boilers smaller than 14 MW in the urban area will be converted to cleaner energy, including that of 14 MW or larger if available. In the rural towns, it will also be encouraged to use cleaner energy to replace coal-burning and those areas having no access to cleaner energy will be encouraged to develop centralized heating system with cleaning coal technology. In the preserved old urban bungalow area, clean energy will be used for heating. The allowed coal-burning boilers of 14 MW or larger should comply with stringent emission limits through use of low sulfur coal, highly effective technology for desulfurization and dust removal and on-line monitoring instruments.
Prevention and control of the vehicle emission pollution: Continue to give priority to public transportation, and lay emphasis on rail transportation (metro and light rail) so as to accelerate the development of the public transportation system in the urban area.
More stringent vehicle emission limits will be introduced in the city: from January 1, 2003, the light vehicle, heavy diesel vehicle will follow the second-stage emission limits that is equivalent to Euro II, and in 2005, the third-stage limits equivalent to Euro III will come into force. Moreover, emission limits for other types of automobiles will be tightened. No new automobiles failing to meet the limits will be allowed to enter Beijing’s market or be granted licenses. On the other hand, efforts shall also be made to organize supply and sales of fuels matching the new limits. At the same time, it will be encouraged to use the automobiles powered by cleaner fuels, fuel cell vehicles, electricity-powered vehicles and other types of lower emission vehicle. By 2007, 90% public buses and 70% taxies shall be converted to cleaner energy.
Measures shall be made to accelerate the elimination of aging automobiles to guarantee reduction of total vehicle emission while the vehicle fleet keeps growing. Automobiles that have been in use by the end of 1992 will be discarded by 2007; the taxies with more than 500,000 kilometers’ driving age should be timely scraped. Rules for eliminating the motorcycles will be formulated and enforced and national stipulations on eliminating the vehicles for agricultural use will be strictly enforced. More simplified dyna-mometer test lines will be provided to apply this exhaust test approach to all in-use vehicles and the limits will be lowered.
Environmental label management will be strengthened; traffic control will be tightened according to different automobile exhaust levels and I/M system will be mandated. Quality of the oil for automobile shall be safeguarded. Take stronger measures in law enforcement by relying on the departments of both environmental protection and traffic control so that more than 90% of the automobiles’ exhaust will come up to the limits.
On the basis of the improvement of the road traffic and the public transit systems, reasonable number of parking lots in the downtown area shall be provided with the price of parking set at reasonable level to control the traffic flow volume on the motorway in the urban area. Measures will be taken to divert transit vehicles from other parts of the country from entering the Fifth Ring Road by 2004. Moreover, other measures to reduce traffic jam and encourage people to use public transits and bicycles shall be adopted.
Prevention and control of air-borne dust pollution: All construction sites must reach the standard stipulated for environmental protection and existing effective measures and systems will carried on to control the dust pollution. Resolute measures will be taken to control the air-borne dust raised on motorways. All transportation vehicles for bulk cargo driving within the Fourth Ring Road should be installed with enclosed tanks. By 2005, all the main motorways in the urban area will be cleaned and water-sprayed through mechanized equipment. Beijing Municipal Provision on Environmental Sanitation, Beijing Municipal Provision on Greening and other stipulations will be strictly enforced to further clarify the responsibility of relevant authorities and make regular check-up and inspections. To 2005, no bare land will remain in the urban area and city skirt. Management of the sand/stone farms will be tightened. To control raising dust in the bare farmland, farmers will be required to leave the stubble in the field without traditional plough.
Control of the secondary pollution. Above measures to cut the gaseous pollutants are effective means for controlling the production of secondary particles and ozone pollution. As well, to control VOC, active measures will be taken to cut the emissions from industry and commercial activities, building painting and daily life. By 2005, all the gas stations, main oil storage tanks and the oil refinery enterprises in the city should have installed hermetical oil gas recovery facilities. Open spray painting will be banned and enterprises must install facilities to recycle and treat the waste gas. Use of organic coating materials and organic dissolvent will be controlled while water dissolvent coating materials and other substitute technology will be promoted. The smoke from restaurants will be treated and the organic materials will be reduced with the emissions reaching their relevant limits.
(2) Prevention and Control of Water Pollution
Water is the core of a healthy ecosystem. The prevention and control of water pollution should consider reasonable development and utilization of regional water resources and water cycle. According to the state plan on the pollution control and management of the Haihe River Basin, emphasis is laid on the protection of Miyun Reservoir and the groundwater sources and restoring the Guanting reservoir as drinking water source. Great efforts will be made to reclaim the effluent from the sewerage collection and treatment facilities to provide more water for environmental, municipal purpose and production.
The protection of drinking water source to safeguard the quantity and quality of water. Cooperation with the upper reaches area shall be strengthen in the process of Haihe River Basin pollution control to safeguard the quantity and quality of the water from upper reaches of Miyun and Guanting reservoirs. In order to make Guanting reservoir resume the function of drinking water source, pollution control projects will be implemented as planned. More trees will be planted in the upper reaches of Miyun reservoir and Huairou reservoir to nourish the water source and eliminate soil erosion. Taking control of N and P as the focus, ecological agriculture in the surrounding area of the reservoirs will be promoted, cultivated farmland will be converted back to forest. Further measures will be taken to mitigate impact on the reservoirs by the production and life in the surrounding towns and villages. Fish farming in the protection zone will be banned. At the same time, the local rules and regulations will be strictly observed to control the business and tourist activities in the protection zone. Law enforcement team for the two reservoirs will be set up to carry out unified supervision and management. More efforts will be make to prevent and control the pollution in the aquifer of the groundwater supply zone in the western and northern suburban. Development of the sewerage collection and treatment system will be basically accomplished and sewerage percolation pits in the protection zone of ground drinking water sources will all been eliminated. Relevant measures for ecological agriculture, a large-scale water-source-nourishing forest and the domestic refuse collection and treatment in the protection zone of No.8 Waterworks will continue to be implement. Self-supply wells in the groundwater over-extracted area will be phased out and the reconstruction and expansion of existing water distribution network will be completed. Also, management of ground water sources in the rural area will be tightened.
The comprehensive improvement of the urban sewage treatment system and water environment. This work will be done in the Bahe River, Qinghe River, Liangshuihe River, North-ring waterways and Wenyuhe River with a view to improving the water quality of the lower reaches of the city. By 2008, about 90% of the urban sewage will be collected and treated. Sewerage treatment plants will be established in the satellite towns to ensure a treatment of 90% of sewage (secondary treatment) and primary or secondary class sewerage treatment plants will be built in 80% of the central towns. Sludge disposal facilities should be installed for the need of sewerage treatment. In places where there is the demand, small wastewater treatment facilities should be used to extract and treat sewerage directly to provide water for cleaning, irrigation and municipal purpose. The new pipes and network will be designed and built for treatment of early-stage rainfall. Environmental management in the building and operation of the wastewater treatment plants shall be improved, market-driven mechanism will be introduced to promote commercially viable operation in wastewater sector. In 2007, the centralized on-line monitoring system will be completed for the wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, the supplying system of fresh water for the surface waterways will be improved, water stored at Miyun and Guanting reservoir will be effectively used to provide fresh water for the downstream. Management and monitoring of the urban waterways shall be strengthened to ensure that water quality can meet their respective functional standards.
(3) Solid Waste Management
Waste management policy, reduction, recycle and safe treatment, will be carry on and waste management will be tightened based on the principle of recycle economy. Such measures as substitution of coal, control of one-shot products, simplifying commodity package, provision of pretreated vegetable to the urban area and advocating healthy consumption, will be taken to cut the production of industrial solid wastes, commercial garbage and domestic refuse at source and promote recycling. 80% of industrial solid waste should be reused by 2005 through industrial restructuring, improved the existing reuse system for coal ash and metallurgical residues and the provision of the treatment facilities for gangue and tailings. Further improvement for reuse shall be pursuit. A strict management system for hazardous waste will be developed to realize 100% safe treatment and disposal. The hazardous waste that cannot be treated on-site will be collected and treated in central treatment and disposal facilities such as the new landfill site to be built. Another centralized treatment facility will be built to treatment medical waste, and the centralized treatment rate should reach 85% in 2005 and 90% in 2008. Management of the transportation, piling-up and utilization of the construction wastes will be strengthened. The system for separate collection, transportation and treatment of domestic refuse will be improved, and the system for waste recycle will be well developed. In addition to guarantee the normal running of the existing waste management facilities, Jiaojiapo landfill site and a number of other facilities will be developed to have all the domestic refuse in both the urban and the satellite towns receive safe treatment by 2005. By the end of 2007, 80% of center towns should have installed their own refuse treatment facilities. On-line monitoring system shall be installed for urban domestic refuse treatment sites. Measures shall be taken to prevent potential secondary pollution like air-borne dust, pollution of groundwater, incineration exhaust exceeding the standards and odor from the process of the collection and treatment of rubbish. At the same time, supervision shall be tightened to prevent hazardous waste from being mixed with urban domestic refuse, serious punishment will be imposed in case of violation.
(4) Prevention and Control of Industrial Pollution
The aim of the prevention and control of industrial pollution is to substantially cut the discharge. The primary approaches include implementation of total discharge quantity control program, application of life-cycle control and recycle economy, readjusting the industrial structure and layout, improvement of environment management within the enterprise, popularization of advanced technology, elimination of the outmoded technique and closing the enterprises with heavy pollution. It should be continued to control over pollution especially, the fugitive emission of air pollutants.
Enterprises will be encouraged to apply the notion of recycle economy into the different links of their production. Recycle economy should be developed gradually in major industries and 1-2 ecological industrial parks will be built. ISO14000 environment management system and cleaner production will be promoted among industries to apply life-cycle control and source reduction to cut the pollutant discharge. On the basis of improved technology and sound management, the township enterprises shall proceed with restructuring in terms of industrial structure and product portfolio as well as pollution control. Environmental Impact Assessment for relocation of polluting industries in the urban area will be high-lighted to prevent the shift of the pollution toward the suburban area.
By 2008, about 200 enterprises will be moved out of the south-eastern suburbs and the Fourth Ring Road. In principle, the polluting enterprises in the south-eastern suburbs will be closed down or moved out to have the lands along the Fourth Ring Road be converted to commercial or residential area instead of the industrial purpose. Control on the dust pollution in metallurgical and cement production will be tightened with special focus on the fugitive discharge. By the end of 2002, the Capital Steel & Iron Corporation will cut its steel production by 2 million tons; and further reduction shall be realized with the heavily polluting processes eliminated and the product portfolio optimized to reduce pollution. The small and medium-sized building material production enterprises in the far rural areas like Fangshan County, will be readjusted gradually and closed down instead of high and new technology processes. By 2005, all vertical kilns will be stopped and bring the cement production scale under strict control.
(5) Management of Noise, Electro-Magnetic Radiation and Radioactivity
Urban and community planning shall be rationally refined. Control over the noise caused by transportation, construction and social activity will be tightened. The motorway planning will give full consideration of traffic noise, at the proper sections, noise-deafening wall, noise-deafening structure and low-noise road surface will be adopted. Moreover, the large lorries that enter the city during night will be under strict control in the driving routes and speed. No blow from any kind of automobiles will be permitted within the Forth Ring Road and no whistle from the train will be allowed in the sensitive area of the city. Residents along certain sections of the railway shall be resettled as necessary, noise insulation wall shall be built along the railway and the urban rails. Noise problem around the Capital Airport will be resolved as planned, and special emphasis shall be laid on the harassment to the residents living at vicinity of the airport expansion site.
Management over the report and registration of existing electric-magnetic radiation and radioactive sources and radioactive waste shall be strengthened, and the approval of new project shall be tightened. A management center for radioactive environment will be established. Storehouse for radioactive waste and the monitoring network and management system for radioactive environment will be set up.