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Konu: Topkapı Sarayının İngilizce ve Türkçe Tanıtımı

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    Standart Cevap: Topkapı Sarayının İngilizce ve Türkçe Tanıtımı

    The Historic Areas of Istanbul were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985.

    It includes locations such as the Galata Bridge, the Seraglio Point where the Topkapı Palace, the Hagia Sophia, the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, the Yeni Mosque near the Galata Bridge, the Beyazıt Tower and the Süleymaniye Mosque.

    The World Heritage site covers four zones, illustrating the major phases of the city's history using its most prestigious monuments:
    the Archaeological Park, which in 1953 and 1956 was defined at the tip of the peninsula;
    the Süleymaniye quarter, protected in 1980 and 1981;
    the Zeyrek quarter, protected in 1979;
    the zone of the ramparts, protected in 1981.



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    Sarayburnu (Turkish: Sarayburnu, meaning Palace Point; known in English as the Seraglio Point) is a promontory separating the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara in Istanbul, Turkey. The area is where the renowned Topkapı Palace and Gülhane Park stand. Sarayburnu is included in the historic areas of Istanbul, added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985.[1]

    The first settlement on the Sarayburnu, named Lygos (Greek: Λυγός), was founded by Thracian tribes between the 13th and 11th centuries BC, along with the neighbouring Semistra,[2] of which Plinius had mentioned in his historical accounts. Only a few walls and substructures belonging to Lygos have survived to date, near the location where the famous Topkapı Palace now stands. During the period of Byzantion, the Acropolis used to stand where the Topkapı Palace stands today.

    In 667 BC ancient Greek settlers from Megara (near Athens) under the command of King Byzas established Byzantion at the Sarayburnu. Earlier, in 685 BC, the Megarans had established Chalcedon (present-day Kadıköy) on the Anatolian shore, across the Bosporus. Actually the oldest settlements in present-day Istanbul are found on the Anatolian side; such as the Fikirtepe mound which dates from the Chalcolithic period (Copper Age), with artifacts dating from 5500-3500 BC. In nearby Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon), a large port settlement dating from the Phoenicians (which predates the Megaran settlement) has been discovered.

    In antiquity there were two natural harbours in the area close to Sarayburnu where the present-day Sirkeci and Eminönü quarters stand (the harbours of Prosphorion and Neorion, which scooped into the coastline of the Golden Horn.) Because of this formation, the point of Sarayburnu was more conspicuous than it is today. In later periods the area was the convergence point for the Sea Walls of the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara. In the Byzantine period, the area was known in Greek as Hagios Demetrios.

    During the railway construction of the late Ottoman period, in 1871, the city walls of the Sarayburnu area were partially demolished, but they are still intact in some areas - especially close to the Topkapı Palace which was built in the 15th century for the Ottoman Sultans. The notable Gülhane Park is located right next to the palace.



    Öyle bir zamanına geldim ki yaşamın, ölüme erken sevgiye geç,
    Yine gecikmişim bağışla sevgilim, sevgiye on kala ölüme beş..

    )̲̅ζø̸√̸£ ч̸ø̸µ

  3. #3
    ModeratoR

    Standart Cevap: Topkapı Sarayının İngilizce ve Türkçe Tanıtımı

    Topkapı Palace

    The Topkapı Palace (Turkish: Topkapı Sarayı[1] or in Ottoman Turkish: طوپقپو سرايى) is a large palace in Istanbul, Turkey, that was the primary residence of the Ottoman Sultans for approximately 400 years (1465-1856) of their 624-year reign.[2]

    As well as a royal residence, the palace was a setting for state occasions and royal entertainments. It is now a major tourist attraction and contains important holy relics of the Muslim world, including Muhammed's cloak and sword.[2] The Topkapı Palace is among the monuments contained within the "Historic Areas of Istanbul", which became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985, and is described in Criterion iv as "the best example[s] of ensembles of palaces [...] of the Ottoman period."[3]

    Construction began in 1459, ordered by Sultan Mehmed II, the conqueror of Byzantine Constantinople. The palace complex consists of four main courtyards and many smaller buildings. At its peak, the palace was home to as many as 4,000 people,[2] and covered a large area with a long shoreline. The complex was expanded over the centuries, with major renovations after the 1509 earthquake and the 1665 fire. The palace contained mosques, a hospital, bakeries, and a mint.[2] The name translates as "Cannon gate Palace" from a nearby gate which has since been destroyed.

    From the end of the 17th century the Topkapı Palace gradually lost its importance as the Sultans preferred to spend more time in their new palaces along the Bosporus. In 1856, Sultan Abdül Mecid I decided to move the court to the newly built Dolmabahçe Palace, the first European-style palace in the city. Some functions, such as the imperial treasury, the library, and the mint were retained in the Topkapı Palace.

    Following the end of the Ottoman Empire in 1921, the Topkapı Palace was transformed by a government decree dated April 3, 1924 into a museum of the imperial era. The Topkapı Palace Museum is administered by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. The palace complex has hundreds of rooms and chambers, but only the most important are accessible to the public today. The complex is guarded by officials of the ministry as well as armed guards of the Turkish military. The palace includes many fine examples of Ottoman architecture. It contains large collections of porcelain, robes, weapons, shields, armor, Ottoman miniatures, Islamic calligraphic manuscripts and murals, as well as a display of Ottoman treasures and jewelry.






    Öyle bir zamanına geldim ki yaşamın, ölüme erken sevgiye geç,
    Yine gecikmişim bağışla sevgilim, sevgiye on kala ölüme beş..

    )̲̅ζø̸√̸£ ч̸ø̸µ

  4. #4
    ModeratoR

    Standart Cevap: Topkapı Sarayının İngilizce ve Türkçe Tanıtımı

    Galata Bridge

    The Galata Bridge (in Turkish Galata Köprüsü) is a bridge that spans the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey. From the end of the 19th century in particular, the bridge has featured in Turkish literature, theater, poetry and novels.


    History



    The first bridge on the Golden Horn, built by Justinian the Great, can be seen near the Theodosian Land Walls at the western end of the city in this rendering of old Constantinople.
    The first recorded bridge over the Golden Horn in Istanbul was built during the reign of Justinian the Great in the 6th century, close to the area near the Theodosian Land Walls at the western end of the city.

    In 1453, during the Fall of Constantinople, the Turks assembled a mobile bridge by placing their ships side by side across the water, so that their troops could move from one side of the Golden Horn to the other.



    Golden Horn Bridge designed by Leonardo da Vinci in 1502.
    In the years 1502–1503 there were plans to construct the first bridge at the current location. Sultan Bayezid II solicited a design and Leonardo da Vinci, utilizing three well-known geometrical principles, the pressed-bow, parabolic curve and keystone arch, created an unprecedented single span 240 m long and 24 m wide bridge for the Golden Horn, which would have become the longest bridge in the world of that time if it had been constructed. However, the ambitious design was not approved by the Sultan.

    A smaller scale version of Leonardo da Vinci's Golden Horn Bridge was brought to life in 2001 near Oslo, Norway by the contemporary artist Vebjørn Sand, the first civil engineering project based on a Leonardo da Vinci sketch to be constructed. The Leonardo Bridge Project hopes to build the design as a practical footbridge around the world, including the Golden Horn in Istanbul, using local materials and collaborating with local artisans as a global public art project. The Wall Street Journal referred to the Project as a "...logo for the nations."[1]

    Another Italian artist, Michelangelo was also invited to design a bridge for Istanbul. Michelangelo rejected the proposal, and the idea of building a bridge across the Golden Horn was shelved until the 19th century


    Öyle bir zamanına geldim ki yaşamın, ölüme erken sevgiye geç,
    Yine gecikmişim bağışla sevgilim, sevgiye on kala ölüme beş..

    )̲̅ζø̸√̸£ ч̸ø̸µ

  5. #5
    ModeratoR

    Standart Cevap: Topkapı Sarayının İngilizce ve Türkçe Tanıtımı

    Süleymaniye Mosque



    The Süleymaniye Mosque was built on the order of Sultan Süleyman (Süleyman the Magnificent) "was fortunate to be able to draw on the talents of the architectural genius of Mimar Sinan" (481 Traditions and Encounters: Brief Global History). The construction work began in 1550 and the mosque was finished in 1558.

    This "vast religious complex called the Süleymaniye...blended Islamic and Byzantine architectural elements. It combines tall, slender minarets with large domed buildings supported by half domes in the style of the Byzantine church Hagia Sophia (which the Ottomans converted into the mosque of Aya Sofya)" (481 Traditions and Encounters: Brief Global History).

    The design of the Süleymaniye also plays on Suleyman's self-conscious representation of himself as a 'second Solomon.' It references the Dome of the Rock, which was built on the site of the Temple of Solomon, as well as Justinian's boast upon the completion of the Hagia Sophia: "Solomon, I have surpassed thee!" The Süleymaniye, similar in magnificence to the preceding structures, asserts Suleyman's historical importance. The structure is nevertheless smaller in size than its older archetype, the Hagia Sophia.

    The Süleymaniye was ravaged by a fire in 1660 and was restored by Sultan Mehmed IV. Part of the dome collapsed again during the earthquake of 1766. Subsequent repairs damaged what was left of the original decoration of Sinan (recent cleaning has shown that Sinan experimented first with blue, before turning red the dominant color of the dome).

    During World War I the courtyard was used as a weapons depot, and when some of the ammunition ignited, the mosque suffered another fire. Not until 1956 was it fully restored again.


    Öyle bir zamanına geldim ki yaşamın, ölüme erken sevgiye geç,
    Yine gecikmişim bağışla sevgilim, sevgiye on kala ölüme beş..

    )̲̅ζø̸√̸£ ч̸ø̸µ

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